Un missionario del Pime pubblica una lettera aperta in occasione delle festività natalizie. “Nelle aree più colpite da anni di conflitto, leader militari e ribelli stanno imparando a diventare operatori di pace”. Anche protestanti, tribali e musulmani prenderanno parte alla novena “Misa del Gallo”
Kidapawan City (AsiaNews) – La popolazione di Kidapawan (North Cotabato) e delle municipalità circostanti vive ancora in condizioni disperate, a causa del grave sciame sismico che circa due mesi fa si è abbattuto sul territorio. In questa regione dell’isola di Mindanao svolge la sua opera missionaria p. Peter Geremia (foto 2), 80enne sacerdote del Pontificio Istituto Missioni Estere (Pime) e leader dell’Inter-Cultural Organizations’ Network for Solidarity and Peace (ICON-SP). In una lettera aperta, pubblicata in occasione delle festività natalizie, il missionario sottolinea “la gioia della vicinanza, del dare e della condivisione” che la popolazione sta vivendo nonostante le difficoltà. “Sono apparsi inaspettati segni di speranza”, afferma. Di seguito il messaggio del sacerdote. (Traduzione a cura di AsiaNews).
Tuttavia, allo stesso tempo molti stanno imparando ad aiutarsi a vicenda e stiamo assistendo ad un massiccio movimento di solidarietà proveniente da tutta la nazione e dall’estero. Quindi sperimentiamo la gioia della vicinanza, la gioia del dare e della condivisione. Sono apparsi inaspettati segni di speranza. Vi sono voci che chiedono la revoca della legge marziale nella nostra isola, che esortano a riprendere i colloqui di pace con i gruppi ribelli; quindi capi militari e insorti sembrano dimenticarsi di combattere l’uno contro l’altro e si stanno unendo per aiutare le vittime delle calamità. Nelle aree più colpite da anni di conflitto stanno avendo luogo molti dialoghi e alcuni leader militari e ribelli stanno imparando a diventare operatori di pace…
Ora stiamo per iniziare la “Misa De Gallo”, una novena di nove giorni di messe celebrate all’alba. Tutte le persone – anche protestanti, tribali e alcuni musulmani – si uniscono a questa insolita tradizione: un flusso di persone si svegliano nel cuore della notte e camminano con torce in mano verso chiese o cappelle decorate con luci di Natale. Ondate di saluti, canzoni gioiose nell’aria… Molti sembrano dimenticare i propri problemi. Ondate di sentimenti e aspettative felici… Questa tradizione è così popolare che molti lavoratori filippini d’oltremare (Ofw) la praticano nei vari Paesi in cui si trovano. Quest’anno, papa Francesco si unirà alla Misa De Gallo degli emigrati a Roma.
Che ci crediate o no, sarà un Natale felice felice ed un Anno Nuovo di speranza. Il Bambino di Betlemme ha strani modi di diffondere gioia e fiducia anche tra le persone che non lo conoscono bene. Questo tipo di spirito natalizio è contagioso e desideriamo che possiate condividerlo, nonostante tutti i problemi e le paure.
Un sincero ringraziamento per la vostra solidarietà, sostegno e preghiere. Vi ringraziamo di aver condiviso i nostri sforzi per essere strumenti di misericordia e pace. Preghiamo affinché possiate partecipare anche alla speciale felicità che stiamo vivendo.
On March 31, 2017, a new state prosecutor, Peter L. Ong, was appointed and tasked to conduct an in-depth re-investigation on the Tentorio Case.
This new prosecutor reviewed all the previous testimonies and new testimonies were added. He came to Arakan and Kidapawan several times with his team for ocular verification and with great skill he confirmed the validity of their testimonies. On October 20, 2017 he signed his report with the following recommendations:
To dismiss the charges against the two Muslim suspects, Jose and Dima Sampulna, who were included in the first complaint filed by the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) on February 10, 2012;
To file a new complaint for “Murder” against the following;
Nene Durado (identified with the “ilaga” fanatic group of Settlers who fought against the Muslims and Tribals since 1970’s and even now continue to take over more and more lands of the Tribals).
Jimmy and Robert Ato (suspected hired killers)
Jan Corbala ( a commander of a group of tribal warriors called “BAGANI”) and 3 members of his group.
Former Arakan Mayor Romulo Tapgos and 2 Arakan Businessmen.
Col. Joven Gonzales and Major Mark Espiritu (2 military officers in command of the 57th IB and the Special Forces Units at the time of the killing of Fr. Fausto).
The report of Prosecutor Ong was published on November 2017 and the news caused reactions both in the Philippines and Abroad. Four key witnesses and their families were rushed into safe houses under the Witness Protection Program (WPP) constantly guarded like prisoners. Then there was another delay until May 2018 due to the change of the DOJ Secretary. Finally the new DOJ secretary Menardo Guevarra appointed a new team of Prosecutors who completed their preliminary investigation and on December 2018 they informed us that the case was submitted for resolution and the trial is expected to start soon, unless there are more delays…
Such a long process, more than seven years, so many investigations but no trial yet. What results can this long struggle “For Justice for Pops” have? What results for all the sacrifices of the witnesses who are risking their lives, especially the four families who have abandoned their homes and work and are hiding with their children in safe houses? They are tired of waiting, But they have become different persons, at first afraid, but gradually more determined. Then the efforts of our main lawyers, Atty. Gregorio Andolana who handled the Favali Case, and Atty. Manuel P. Quibod, the Dean of the Law Department in the Ateneo of Davao, plus other Lawyers who are providing free legal assistance to many human rights victims. Then the financial support, especially from the “Associazione Non Dimentichiamo Padre Fausto” from the Tentorio family and friends. Also the government has invested large budgets and lately they have received funds from the Asia Foundation which volunteered to support this case because they noticed great community support from Arakan, Kidapawan and even national and international concerned groups…
What results from all these efforts?
We were tempted to stop seeking justice in court, but the re-investigation of Prosecutor Ong and the latest testimonies have clarified that the main proponents of the killing were the Ilaga Group that have occupied the tribal lands in Barangay Dallag and surrounding areas at the boundary of Arakan and Davao. In fact, according to the testimonies, the main suspect who brought the plan to kill Fausto to the Bagani group was NENE DURADO who is widely known as the most notorious Ilaga “Killer” in that area. According to the Tribals in the 1970’s he personally tortured and killed 7 Datus or Tribal Leaders and burned their houses and forced their communities to abandon their lands. Thus Nene Durado and the Ilaga settlers have occupied and developed most of the Tribal lands in that area, and even recently Nene Durado was repeatedly involved in ambushes and threats against the Tribals.
ILAGA is an acronym for “Ilonggo Land Grabbing Association “, the same movement of the Manero group who killed Fr. Tullio Favali, PIME in Tulunan in 1985. The Ilaga enjoyed, and continue to enjoy immunity and the full support of the military because they are used as vigilantes in fighting both Muslim and leftist Rebels.
How can we abandon this case that has become a test case to show that justice is possible in court for Pops and many other similar Extra Judicial Killings (EJK)?
Now the trial can confirm the identity of the perpetrators and their main motive. Most Tribals say that the main motive or reason for killing Fr. Fausto was because Fausto was identified with the Tribals in Arakan as their protector since most of them asked for his help for all their needs. His solidarity and support to the Tribals, all his programs of education, organizing , sustainable agriculture and health etc. were resented by the Ilaga overlords as potential threats to their landgrabbing, especially when some Tribals began to reclaim their ancestral lands with the help of Fr. Fausto. The Ilaga also spread suspicions that both the Tribal leaders and Fausto have connection with the rebels. The trial can clarify who participated in the plan and the actual killing of Fr. Fausto. And finally the trial can bring some justice not only to Fr. Fausto, but also to many Tribal victims. It can be a warning to landgrabbers and it may contribute to restrain those who are accustomed to killing with impunity, to show that the practice of impunity may not last forever.
The trial can also provide some security to those who continue Pops’ programs. The legacy of Fr. Fausto can encourage and inspire more volunteers to serve the poor. In his “Last Will” Fausto quoted the Bible text “Oh man you know what is good and what God requires of you: to do justice, to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God” (Micah 6:8) and he added in the local dialect “Your Dreams are my Dreams, Your Struggles are my Struggles; You and I are one as partners in building the Kingdom of God”. Jesus was the one who proposed to build the Kingdom of God, that is the Kingdom or system of justice and peace, and that was also the reason why He was killed. Fausto wishes that all may understand that this was his motivation in serving the poor. And that is what the evidence in the trial can confirm.
Il 31 marzo 2017 era stato nominato un nuovo procuratore di stato, Peter L. Ong, incaricato di condurre un’indagine approfondita sulla causa Tentorio.
Questo nuovo pubblico ministero esaminò tutte le precedenti testimonianze alle quali sono state aggiunte nuove testimonianze. Ong visitò Arakan e Kidapawan diverse volte, con la sua squadra, per la verifica oculare e con grande abilità confermò la validità delle nuove testimonianze. Il 20 ottobre 2017 ha poi firmato la sua relazione con le seguenti raccomandazioni:
Respingere le accuse contro i due sospetti musulmani, Jose e Dima Sampulna, che erano stati inclusi nella prima denuncia presentata dal National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) il 10 febbraio 2012;
Presentare un nuovo reclamo per “Omicidio” contro queste persone;
Nene Durado (identificato con il gruppo di fanatici “ilaga” di coloni che hanno combattuto contro i musulmani e i tribali fin dagli anni ’70 e anche ora continuano a conquistare sempre più terre dei tribali).
Jimmy e Robert Ato (sospetti assassini assoldati)
Jan Corbala (comandante di un gruppo di guerrieri tribali chiamato “BAGANI”) e 3 membri del suo gruppo.
L’ex sindaco arakan Romulo Tapgos e 2 uomini d’affari Arakan.
Lt.Col. Joven Gonzales e il maggiore Mark Espiritu (2 ufficiali militari al comando del 57mo IB e delle unità delle forze speciali al momento dell’uccisione di don Fausto).
Il rapporto del procuratore Ong è stato pubblicato nel novembre 2017 e le notizie hanno causato reazioni sia nelle Filippine che all’estero. Quattro testimoni chiave e le loro famiglie sono stati portati di corsa in case sicure sotto il Programma di protezione dei testimoni (WPP) costantemente sorvegliati.
Poi c’è stato un altro ritardo fino a maggio 2018 a causa del cambio del segretario del DOJ.
Finalmente il nuovo segretario del DOJ Menardo Guevarra ha nominato una nuova squadra di pubblici ministeri che ha completato le indagini preliminari e nel dicembre 2018 ci hanno informato che il caso è stato presentato per una risoluzione e il processo dovrebbe iniziare presto, a meno che non ci siano altri ritardi.
Il processo sino ad ora è stato lungo, più di sette anni, tante indagini ma nessuna soluzione certa. Quando terminerà questa lunga lotta “Per la giustizia e per padre Pops”? Cosa succederà ai testimoni che stanno rischiando la vita, in particolare le quattro famiglie che hanno abbandonato le loro case e lavorano e si stanno nascondendo con i loro figli in case sicure? Sono stanchi di aspettare, ma ora sono persone diverse, prima spaventati, ma gradualmente ora più determinati. Molti gli sforzi dei nostri avvocati, Atty. Gregorio Andolana (che ha gestito il caso Favali ) e Atty. Manuel P. Quibod, Decano del Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza dell’Ateneo di Davao e altri avvocati che già forniscono assistenza legale gratuita a molte vittime dei diritti umani. Poi importante il sostegno finanziario, in particolare dall’Associazione Non Dimentichiamo Padre Fausto, della famiglia e degli amici di Tentorio. Anche il governo ha investito ingenti budget e recentemente ha ricevuto fondi dalla Fondazione Asia che si è offerta volontaria per sostenere le spese di questo caso perché ha notato un grande sostegno della comunità di Kidapawan e persino di gruppi nazionali e internazionali interessati …
Cosa hanno portati questi sforzi?
Siamo stati tentati di smettere di cercare la giustizia in tribunale, ma la nuova inchiesta del procuratore Ong e le ultime testimonianze hanno chiarito che i principali fautori dell’omicidio era un gruppo di Ilaga che ha occupato le terre tribali di Barangay Dallag e le aree circostanti ai confini di Arakan e Davao. Infatti, secondo le testimonianze, il principale sospettato che offrì il piano per uccidere Fausto al gruppo Bagani fu NENE DURADO ampiamente conosciuto come il più famoso “killer” degli Ilaga in quella zona. Secondo i tribali (del luogo) negli anni ’70 torturò e uccise personalmente 7 Dato o leader tribali, bruciando le loro case e costringendo le loro comunità ad abbandonare le loro terre. Così Nene Durado e i coloni dell’Ilaga hanno occupato la maggior parte delle terre tribali in quella zona e anche recentemente Nene Durado è stato ripetutamente coinvolto in imboscate e minacce contro i tribali.
ILAGA è l’acronimo di “Ilonggo Land Grabbing Association”, lo stesso movimento del gruppo Manero che ha ucciso p. Tullio Favali, Pime a Tulunan nel 1985. L’Ilaga ha goduto, e continua a godere dell’immunità e del pieno sostegno dei militari perché sono usati come vigilantes nella lotta sia contro ribelli musulmani che quelli di sinistra.
Come possiamo abbandonare questo caso che è diventato un banco di prova per dimostrare che è possibile fare giustizia in tribunale per Pops e molti altri simili uccisioni giudiziarie extra (EJK)?
Ora il processo può confermare l’identità degli autori e il loro motivo. La maggior parte dei tribali dice che il motivo principale o la ragione per uccidere p. Fausto era perché Fausto era identificato con i tribali in Arakan come il loro protettore, poiché la maggior parte di loro chiedeva il suo aiuto per i loro bisogni. Per la sua solidarietà e sostegno ai tribali, per tutti i suoi programmi di educazione, organizzazione, agricoltura e salute sostenibili, ecc per i signori degli Ilaga erano come potenziali minacce al loro landgrabbing, specialmente quando alcuni tribali iniziarono a reclamare le loro terre ancestrali con l’aiuto di p. Fausto. L’Ilaga ha anche diffuso il sospetto che i leader tribali amici di Fausto abbiano legami con i ribelli. Il processo può chiarire chi ha partecipato al piano e l’effettiva uccisione di p. Fausto. E finalmente il processo può portare un po’ di giustizia non solo a p. Fausto, ma anche a molte vittime tribali. Può essere un avvertimento per i landgrabbers e può contribuire a trattenere coloro che sono abituati a uccidere impunemente, a dimostrare che la pratica dell’impunità potrebbe non durare per sempre.
Il processo può anche fornire un po’ di sicurezza a coloro che continuano i programmi di Pops. L’eredità di p. Fausto può incoraggiare e ispirare più volontari a servire i poveri. Nella sua “Ultima Volontà” Fausto ha citato il testo biblico “Oh uomo, tu conosci ciò che è buono e ciò che Dio richiede da te: fare giustizia, amare la misericordia e camminare umilmente con il tuo Dio” (Michea 6: 8) e ha aggiunto nel dialetto locale “I tuoi sogni sono i miei sogni, le tue lotte sono le mie lotte; Tu ed io siamo uno come partner nella costruzione del Regno di Dio “.
Gesù è stato colui che ha proposto di edificare il Regno di Dio, cioè il Regno o un sistema di giustizia e pace, e questo è stato anche il motivo per cui è stato ucciso. Crediamo fermamente che Fausto voglia far capire, ancora oggi, che questa è stata la sua motivazione nel servire i poveri. E questo è ciò che le prove nel processo potrebboro confermare.
When the local bishop, His Excellency Pedro Bantigue, called the PIME missionaries to Santa Cruz, the capital of the province of Laguna and a difficult reality also for socio-political reasons, he did so because he wanted to give strength and visibility to the Church in the most important city of his Diocese. Santa Cruz (75 miles from Manila) had around 60,000 inhabitants at the time, 40% of them Roman Catholics and 60% “aglipayani” (i.e. followers of an independent Catholic Church founded by Gregorio Aglipay). The majority did not attend any place of worship: educated people had moved away from religious practice, as the popular masses practiced a strongly superstitious form of Christianity. Although on paper it was a “Catholic” context, deep evangelization was needed. This is precisely what the first PIME Missionaries were dedicated to carry out: they organized catechism, a parish council, stimulated the laity to commit themselves, introduced a participatory liturgy, “cleared” the churches of an exaggerated number of statues and sacred images.
Aware that the Catholics had entrenched themselves in the city center around the monumental church of Spanish origin, leaving the suburbs to the “allepayani”, the missionaries decided to be engaged in social works for the poorest: distribution of food and medicine, a medical center with free healthcare, a popular bank with 500 members, support for families to send children to school. All initiatives that aroused warm, popular support but destabilized the “closest” among the faithful.
Fr. Peter Geremia has spent most of his life dedicated to the cause of social justice for the poor and the often forgotten tribal peoples.
In Santa Cruz, PIME introduced, among other things, grassroots communities. Fr. Peter Geremia, who arrived in the Philippines on August 21, 1972, writes: “In Santa Cruz I did not want to limit myself to the people of the center, the so-called ‘poblacion’, but also to reach the peripheral villages, the barrios. I asked twelve men in good standing to build an ‘apostolic group’ to plan and pray together, prepare the Sunday liturgy and then share it with the peripheral communities. We still did not call them that, but in fact they were the first ‘grassroots Christian communities’, which would then spread mainly to the South, on the island of Mindanao. Martial law unfortunately prevented the development of this methodology, because the most active individuals were immediately accused of subversion and were arrested.”
“Santa Cruz was for me a baptism of fire in an ecclesial and social context of radical confrontation between a tradition of façade and vested interests, on the one hand; and the need for change and authentic Christian life, on the other.” In 1977, when the parish of Santa Cruz was returned to the diocese, it can be said that it had been completely renovated.
Even during the tumultuous years of their presence in Tondo, in the heart of the Philippines capital, PIME left its mark. The area along the coast of Manila was an endless expanse of shacks with over 300,000 inhabitants; even today it remains a very degraded area. The ancient parish of Tondo was established at a time when the Philippines were just a Spanish colony; in 1970 two new parishes were started, one entrusted to the Augustinians and one to PIME. The latter erected in the poorest “block” of Tondo and named after San Pablo to commemorate Paul VI’s visit to Manila in November of that year. The first two members of PIME to be assigned to Tondo were Fr. Bruno Piccolo and Fr. Joseph Vancio who arrived in January of 1971.
They began to visit the people; they were quickly exposed to the misery of the shacks: a poverty dehumanizing for its filth, malnutrition, delinquency and endemic violence. The hovels were piled one on top of the other with no roads, no sewers, no running water, no parks or playgrounds. Moreover, the inhabitants or, rather, squatters, felt all the contempt of others upon themselves, with the result of living in resignation and fatalism: a truly missionary situation.
Even in Tondo, people were divided into various groups, each of which tried to “grab” the Church and its priests (i.e. they vied to draw the priests to side with them). The missionaries chose the poor; they were committed to helping them, trying to involve all the faithful in their commitment. Thus, the Zoto (Zone One Tondo Organization) was born. Its goals were to solicit awareness and action in helping the poor. It was an organization that extended to various parishes, including that of PIME.
Although he has been witness to some of the awful horrors and injustices that the Philippines have to offer, Fr. Peter has always managed to find the beauty here.
Through the “community organizers” we tried to direct the faithful towards solidarity and cooperation for common projects. In July 1973 the pastoral council of the parish was established with various committees: catechesis, liturgy, charity, but also those dedicated to social issues (water, school, health, electricity, etc.).
The Zoto project and the PIME parish begin to annoy certain people. With the martial law, introduced by the dictator Marcos in 1972, it had become easy to accuse foreign missionaries of instigating the people against the authorities; especially since the parish of San Pablo extended its influence to many who did not attend church and those outside its territorial boundaries.
In 1974, the hundred members of the parish council met with representatives of other groups of slums dwellers. This gathering gave birth to the Council of Christian communities, set up with a totally democratic structure (even the parish priest, Fr. Gigi Cocquio, was on equal footing with the rest). On November 27, 1974, the three areas of Tondo organized a protest march in which 5,000 people took part: Fr. Cocquio was arrested for several hours by the police along with Fr. Vancio. In October 1975, another clamorous episode happened: a strike was announced at the “La Tondena” Distillery where 800 people worked, of which only 300 were regularly employed, and the Council of the Christian community of Tondo intervened in support of the workers.
Shortly thereafter, the final straw would force PIME to leave Tondo, where Fr. Francesco Alessi, Fr. Peter Geremia and Fr. Albert Booms had joined Fr. Cocquio in the meantime. In December 1975, the World Bank approved a project to clean up the Tondo slums, following which the demolition of the shantytowns and the expulsion of the squatters from the neighborhood began. In January 1976, the Manila slum dwellers met in the Committee of the Poor against Demolition: Imelda Marcos, the president’s wife, received 20 of their representatives, accompanied by four bishops. Meanwhile, however, the situation of the PIME Missionaries precipitated because the authorities considered them the soul of the protest movement.
On January 24, 1976, the local superior of PIME, Fr. Francesco Alessi, and the parish priest of San Pablo, Fr. Gigi Cocquio, were arrested by the police and placed on an Air France flight to Rome. Fr. Geremia avoided arrest by hiding in a hospital; was not expelled, but he would no longer be able to operate in Manila and would therefore be sent to Mindanao. Fr. Albert Booms, an American citizen, was expelled a few months later, on November 20, 1976.
I just reached the age of 80, and I wrote a diary titled “Seeking God’s Kingdom of Justice and Peace”. Someone asked me, “When did you start seeking what you call the kingdom of justice and peace? Now that you are 80 years old, have you already reached justice and peace?
I started seeking justice and peace in a confused way when I first felt the call to be become a missionary. I grew up among the ruins of World War II and I imagined that I could hear the cries of all who were killed or wounded and orphaned in all wars all over the world.
As a missionary I landed in the Philippines in 1972. In the 1980’s I joined the movement of the GKK or BCC (Basic Christian Communities). We thought that the BCCs where a way of building God’s kingdom of justice and peace because people united not only for prayers but also to help one another in all their needs. From BCCs we expanded to Tribal and even Muslim communities organizing tri-people organizations where all kinds of people united in seeking justice and peace.
The people most interested in seeking justice and peace where the Poor, Deprived, Oppressed, Marginalized, Exploited and Struggling people (PDOMES). With them we discovered “Liberating Education”, the kind of education that helps the poor to discover that they can become free from the slavery of vices and all forms of oppression. With them we experienced the special joy of solidarity with the poor. We were surprised to see so many overcome the complex of hopelessness and passivity and dare to become involved in seeking justice and peace. Some became activists in rallies shouting their demands for justice and peace. Others were recruited to fight for justice and peace joining different armed groups in endless wars. Still others became activists in the movement of non-violence and many were killed in our BCCs and tri-people organizations, and also a couple of missionaries were killed because they shared the expectations of the poor, Father Tullio Favali and Father Fausto ‘Pops’ Tentorio who wrote in his last will, “Your dreams are my dreams, your struggles are my struggles, you and I are one in building God’s kingdom”
Jesus Christ was the first one who proposed to seek God’s kingdom of justice and peace. He said “Seek God’s kingdom and its justice and everything else will be granted to you” (Mt. 6:33). Jesus’ way of non-violence but of concrete solidarity by feeding the hungry, becoming Good Samaritans and sharing everything… can produce concrete justice and peace starting in families up to larger networks of solidarity.
Many joined this movement of solidarity. One special witness of justice and peace was Nonoy Lory Obal, a young lay person that grew up in our BCCs and became a moving force in our tri-people organizations. Nonoy could make all kinds of people dream of liberation from all forms of oppression or injustices and unpeace, she even challenged the oppressors to join the oppressed and the warmakers to become peacemakers. She was so excited about the All-Out Peace Movement, but suddenly her voice was silenced by cancer… But, we can still hear her song, like the Song of Mary,
“My heart sings of joy because I experience the saving power of the God of Mercy and Compassion… He scatters the proud and their plans, He overthrows the powerful from their thrones, He lifts up the oppressed, He feeds the hungry with plenty, but He sends away the rich with empty hands…”
Mary sings that God’s wave of mercy and compassion continues for all generations, continues to overthrow the powerful from their thrones and to lift up the oppressed, continues to feed the hungry and to send away the rich with empty hands… that’s how God shows His mercy, as He promised to Abraham and to all generations.
Can we pray with Mary that the plans of the proud be put to shame and the powerful be overthrown from their thrones? Can we pray to empower the oppressed and to lift them up from their oppression? Can we pray to provide enough food for the hungry and to send away the rich with empty stomachs? Can these expectations bring about justice and peace, or will the rich and the powerful object that God will never allow such revolutionary changes? Can we join those who are now uniting to implement such expectations or changes?
Are these only impossible dreams? After all Jesus and Mary, Pops and Nonoy and all the martyrs are all dead and we cannot see much justice and peace… Right now in the Philippines we are experiencing a return to Martial Law and Dictatorship with a regime that has no respect for God nor for the poor and their dreams. Killers are hunting poor drug suspects and Human Rights and Peace Advocates. Even some priests were killed and some bishops and foreign missionaries are threatened. This is a time for more Martyrs, while many are paralyzed by fear or indifference… Still there are also some who believe that all who sacrificed their lives seeking justice and peace are still alive, they live on in those who share their passion and determination to continue seeking justice and peace.
As long as there are people who are hungry and thirsty for justice and peace, as long as there are volunteers who sing Mary’s song and carry Jesus’s cross and pursue the dreams of the poor, and as long as there is a God of mercy and compassion who will continue building His Kingdom until injustice and unpeace will be no more, until the weapons of war will be transformed into farm tools, until the hungry will have plenty to eat, until enemies can be reconciled… then the impossible may become possible.
We may not understand how this can happen, but it may be happening without our noticing it. Jesus thought us to pray in the Our Father, “May Your Kingdom come… soon!” (Mt. 6:10).
November 27, 2018, great celebration for the eighty years of Father Peter Geremia.
At ten o’clock the Holy Mass at the ICON center with the participation of people from all over Mindanao, especially from the parishes where Father Peter worked, Columbio, Tulunan, Diocesan Center, Arakan Valley. The youngest Anthony, just two weeks old and his presence is moving. The Holy Mass dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, to which the Diocesan Center is dedicated and very dear to Father Peter too.
After the canticle of Mary, Father Peter talked to the assembly, about a hundred and eighty people, remembering the first steps to Kidapawan, his meeting with the Basic Christian Communities (GKK), a diocesan program rooted in the bible and carried on above all by the laity who inspired him to found the GLK (Basic Tribal Communities) which became the base, in fact, of a wider diocesan program called TF (Tribal Filipino). Of course, even a brief mention of the closure, after 25 years, of the same program that, however, with great commitment is now carried out autonomously by laymen and laywomen such as ICON (Inter Cultural Organization Network) and NGOs composed of peasants and tribals. They have the task of collaborating with other forces to build a Kingdom of God that takes into account all the realities of society starting from the poorest, said Father Peter.
Recalling the phone call received from “Bepi” his brother priest, from Treviso, Italy, he then went on the topic always preferred by him of the Kingdom of God where Justice and Peace must reign, values not yet pursued by the current society still shaken by clashes and conflicts, often armed. Many, imitating Christ, gave their lives for these values, like martyrs, priests or ordinary people. Here Father Peter recalled a sentence written in the will of Father Fausto Tentorio: “Ang imong pangandoy, akong pangandoy and imong pakigbisog, akong pakigbisog: Busa ikaw ug ako usa ra. Kauban sa pagpanday sa Ginharian sa Dios! “)(Your desire is my desire. Your struggle is my struggle, so you and I are united: companions in building the Kingdom of God. Referring to the passion of Christ he practically concluded by asking: “How to continue the process of change initiated by Christ? How to continue our commitment to peace? “Seek first the kingdom and righteousness of God, and all these things will come upon you” (Matthew 6:33), he answered mentioning Jesus.
The day continued through lot of visits, food and drinks offered to everyone, both at lunch and at dinner, when even the bishop of Kidapawan Msgr. Josè Colin Bagaforo arrived wishing Father Peter a long life: another twenty years? and Peter smiled.
Grande festa per gli ottanta anni di padre Peter Geremia. La tradizionale magnanita alle 3 del mattino al Centro Diocesano della Diocesi di Kidapawan, dove padre Peter ha la sua stanza, è andata buca per via di Digong il mostruoso cane da guardia che protegge il compound dagli intrusi, lasciato in libertà dalle 9 di sera alle 5 del mattino.
Alle dieci la Santa messa al centro ICON con la partecipazione di gente da ogni parte di Mindanao, soprattutto dalle parrocchie dove padre Peter ha lavorato, Columbio, Tulunan, Centro Diocesano, Arakan Valley. Il più giovane Anthony, appena due settimane di vita e la sua presenza commuove. Messa dedicata alla Vergine di Guadalupe, alla quale il centro diocesano è dedicato e molto cara anche a padre Peter.
Dopo il cantico di Maria, padre Peter si è aperto all’assemblea, di circa cent’ottanta persone, ricordando i primi passi a Kidapawan, il suo incontro con le comunità di base (GKK), un programma diocesano radicato sulla bibbia e portato avanti soprattutto dai laici che lo ha ispirato a fondare le GLK ( Comunità Tribali di Base) base, appunto, di un programma diocesano detto TF (Tribal Filipino) più ampio. Naturalmente, anche un breve accenno alla chiusura, dopo 25 anni, dello stesso programma che, tuttavia, con grande impegno è ora portato avanti autonomamente da laici come ICON (Inter Cultural Organization Network) e Ong di contadini e tribali. A loro il compito di collaborare con altre forze alla costruzione di un Regno di Dio che tenga conto di tutte le realtà della società partendo dai più poveri, ha detto padre Peter.
Ricordando la telefonata ricevuta da Bepi suo fratello sacerdote, si è poi dilungato sul tema a lui sempre prediletto del Regno di Dio dove deve regnare Giustizia e Pace, valori non ancora perseguiti dalla società attuale ancora scossa da scontri e conflitti, molte volte armati. Molti, imitando Cristo, hanno dato la vita per questi valori, come i martiri, preti o gente comune. Qui padre Peter ha ricordato una frase scritta nel testamento di padre Fausto Tentorio: “Ang imong pangandoy, akong pangandoy e imong pakigbisog, akong pakigbisog: Busa ikaw ug ako usa ra. Kauban sa pagpanday sa Ginharian sa Dios!” (Il tuo desiderio è il mio desiderio. La tua lotta è la mia lotta. Pertanto, tu ed io siamo uniti: compagni nella costruzione del Regno di Dio). Rifacendosi alla passione di Cristo ha praticamente concluso chiedendo: “Come continuare il processo di cambiamento iniziato da Cristo? Come continuare il nostro impegno per la Pace? “Cercate prima il regno e la giustizia di Dio, e tutte queste cose vi saranno sopraggiunte” (Matteo 6:33).
La giornata è proseguita tra visite, cibo e bevande offerte a tutti, sia a pranzo che a cena, quando anche il vescovo mons. Josè Colin Bagaforo è arrivato augurando a padre Peter lunga vita: altri vent’anni? “Digong” permettendo.
Oggi, 31 ottobre, grande celebrazione nella Diocesi di Kidapawan per i nostri martiri e per il 50mo del PIME nelle Filippine. Una messa, concelebrata da una trentina di preti della diocesi e dai alcuni padri del PIME, alle 9.30 del mattino, nella nuova e candida chiesa eretta vicino alla residenza episcopale. E’ stata presieduta dal vescovo di Kidapawan mons. Jose Colin Bagaforo. Durante la messa padre Ronnie Villamor, uno dei primi preti di Kidapawan, ordinato subito dopo l’uccisione di Tullio Favali, ha raccontato, con grande dovizia di particolari, la nostra presenza nella Diocesi di Kidapawan da quando un gruppo di padri del Pime, nel 1980, Peter Geremia, Fausto Tentorio, Sandro Bauducci, Luciano Ghezzi e Bruno Vanin, hanno iniziato a lavorare nelle tre missioni a loro assegnate: Columbio, Tulunan e Arakan. Padre Ronnie a ricordato ai presenti, circa 500 persone provenienti dalle parrocchie servite dal PIME, come i nostri si siano adattati alle condizioni del luogo, mangiando quello che la gente mangiava, spostandosi come la gente si muoveva, a piedi, a cavallo o in moto, e adattandosi a vivere in condizioni considerate misere e marginali. “Se missionari stranieri hanno potuto fare questo per il Vangelo, perché noi Filippini non possiamo farlo?”
Naturalmente, un posto speciale ai nostri martiri. Mons Bagaforo a descritto Padre Tullio come “Innocent, but willing” (Innocente, ma pronto al servizio)” e padre Fausto Tentorio “Humble but advocate” (Umile ma pronto a prendere le parti dei più deboli). Infine, molte parole di apprezzamento a padre Peter Geremia, instancabile difensore dei diritti umani soprattutto delle popolazioni indigene della Diocesi di Kidapawan; B’laang, B’laang e Manobo. A lui e al Superiore Regionale, padre Fernando Milani, è stato dato un riconoscimento a forma di vela (ricordando il simbolo molto caro al PIME) con una frase che esprime gratitudine per il lavoro del PIME in Kidapawan nel costruire il Regno di Dio su questo lembo di terra, in Mindanao”. Grande emozione tra i presenti quando è apparsa sui monitor della chiesa, tra lo scorrere delle diapositive dei padri del PIME, la foto di padre Peter mentre abbraccia Commander Bucay, l’uccisore di padre Tullio. Inizio, si spera, di un periodo di pace in questa terra martoriata da molti e ricorrenti conflitti e uccisioni. “Se così è stato, se c’è stata questa riconciliazione tra chi ha commesso un torto e chi l’ha ricevuto, perché noi non possiamo farlo” ha ripetuto padre Ronnie.
La lunga celebrazione, terminata verso le 12.00 con processione al piccolo cimitero dove sono seppelliti i preti di Kidapawan e i nostri padri Tullio e Fausto, con le croci delle varie parrocchie della Diocesi infisse attorno al luogo di chi ci ha preceduto e liberazione di colombe, si è conclusa con il pranzo rigorosamente uguale per tutti, vescovo, preti e laici.
Fu un momento di ricorrente gioia? Ai posteri l’ardua sentenza.
by fr. Peter Geremia, Kidapawan, September 24, 2018
Last year 2017 ended with… a Good News in our Peace Process. Some key church people in our Diocese and other churches, together with key concerned civilians, launched the Peoples Peace Agenda (PPA) on November 29, 2017.
The PPA is a response to the Marawi overkill and the All Out War against the New Peoples’ Army (NPA) in our areas. The PPA started as a suntok sa buwan (trying to reach the moon) or an impossible dream: how to restrain the escalation of violation with peaceful means instead of the use of superior force or superior violence?
We called on all civilian sectors to give their suggestions in order to bring about peace in our communities. A flood of suggestions almost drowned us, from prayers to community action and many requests to all armed groups and civilian authorities. But how to implement them? We approached the various armed groups and civilian authorities asking them to listen to the suggestions of the civilian sectors and to add their own suggestions participating in a process of dialogue and to recognize our Peace and Monitoring Committees. By now we are training peace advocates for these committees.
Then this past July 2018 the Peace Talks between the Government and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) finally reached a compromise solution with the signing of the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL). This law is generally considered a sign of hope, but it still needs to be ratified through plebiscite. Can this law prevent bombings and terrorists’ attacks from Muslim extremists? Can it reopen the door for the peace talks with the NPA? After all it should be easier for the government to dialogue with Christian rebels then Muslim rebels. Are these signs of Good News?
Meanwhile, the government is still unable to solve the drug problem. The Philippine National Police (PNP) claims that the weekly number of drug-related killings is down from 100 plus to only 20 plus. Is this Good News? Likewise, the government is still unable to solve the bigger problems of corruption, rising prices, economic and ecological crisis, and the man-made disasters due to mining and plantations, etc. Isn’t this a lot of Bad News which is all over the media?
Still, can we find Good News also in response to the Bad News? For instance, there are people who approve of the killings as the quickest solution for all problems and there are international donors who offer plenty of guns and ammunitions encouraging Filipinos to keep on killing other Filipinos. But on the other hand, many are beginning to realize that indifference is used to justify mass murders. The families and those who know the victims are shocked, they realize that anybody can be a target.
The 3 priests recently killed; Fr. Marcelito Paez, 71, killed last December 4, 2017; Fr. Mark Ventura, 37, killed on April 29, 2018; Fr. Richmond Villaflor Nilo, killed on June 10, 2018. These 3 priests were immediately suspected of some improper involvement, but then they were verified to be good shepherds caring for the poor. There are those who are trying to cast doubts on their reputations, but eventually their communities can recognize them as martyrs, and eventually their death can be given justice in court, as now it appears possible that the case of Fr. Pops Tentorio, PIME may soon be brought to trial and there are witnesses ready to identify some of the killers and their motives.
The early Christian martyrs were condemned as “Atheists” because they refused to worship as god the emperor of the Roman Empire. Now some contemporary Rulers may also like to kill all those who may not worship them as gods. Is it Good News to have more martyrs?
Isn’t it Good News when a priest like Fr. Chito Suganob who survived the hell of Marawi and came out with stronger faith and determination to serve the same traumatized tri-people communities?
Many other priests and many more lay activists are quietly joining the Peace Process trusting that the way of Mercy and Compassion can be more effective than the endless competition of violence and counter violence. Both we Christians and the Muslims or Tribals believe in One God full of Mercy and Compassion, and if we really practice what we believe, then we can trust that the ways of non-violence can defuse the ways of violence. Bad News are only shadows, the light will always prevail and “Good always triumphs over evil”: this is the secret of the resurrection of Jesus.
11 aprile, ore sei del mattino si parte per La Speranza, Tulunan km 125, naturalmente con Peter (Geremia) che mai ha perso questa occasione, sfidando pioggia e sole, intimidazioni e più tardi disinteresse, per esserci. La messa sarà celebrata alle sette poi si collocherà una targa con i nomi di altri 14 ‘martiri’ di Tulunan nel luogo dove già sorge un capitello in memoria di padre Tullio Favali.
“La meta da raggiungere è il viaggio” così dicevano, ci par di capire, (il pensiero ci viene mentre viaggiamo sulla strada larga e cementata tra Kidapawan a Tulunan un tempo sassi, fango e polvere) …. i missionari primi apparsi in questi luoghi. Oggi lo dicono i pellegrini in cammino verso il santuario di Lampagang a pochi chilometri da La Speranza. Questa prima certezza era senz’altro nel cuore di Tullio , 33 anni fa, quando in motocicletta (che, così-come-è, viene ora esposta al nuovo e moderno Museo di Kidapawan in apertura tra sette giorni) viaggiava spedito verso quel fatale crocevia 125. La seconda stava nella sua fede. Lo aiutò a non fermare il mezzo meccanico di fronte all’ancora incompleta conoscenza, lui neofita piombato in un mondo indecifrabile e in perenne conflitto. Del resto, come tanti di noi, anzi meglio di noi, era partito dall’Italia con l’idea di spendere la vita per gli altri, indipendentemente se fossero stati buoni o cattivi. Insomma, un modo di vivere cristiano a volte snobbato se non detestato da alcuni. Nondimeno, da rispettare. Purtroppo, coloro che si auto dichiararono suoi avversari manco un attimo ci pensarono, al rispetto.
Km 125 raggiunto da Tullio da protagonista. Una corsa veloce la sua perché –‘alleggerita’ dalla rinuncia di una vita confortevole, una famiglia, un lavoro salariato, ma anche agevolata dalle distanze prese verso una società inquinata nei costumi da una economia di mercato andata a male (e speriamo in via d’estinzione). Per qualche attimo, come lui al chilometro 125, ci siamo immaginati protagonisti tra ‘Terra e Cielo’ (per parafrasare il testo di Roberto Cavosi sul dramma di Tullio messo in scena al San Babila nell’ormai lontano 2000). A volte spinti nei bassifondi del quotidiano dai malandati altre volte attratti dalle altezze raggiunte dai giusti (santi e martiri quest’ultimi). Non certo per diventare uomini super. Semmai impacciati e fuggevoli viaggiatori nel tempo.
Prima di ripartire scambi di impressioni con i partecipanti; un centinaio scarso. Tra loro anziane signore, in maggioranza vedove, ci chiedono di mandare i loro saluti ai padri del Pime ancora viventi, Luciano G., Sandro B., Michel(e), Seb(astiano), G(i)ulio …. che qui facciamo.
April 11th, 6 a.m. we leave for Crossing 125, La Speranza, Tulunan, of course with fr.Peter (Geremia) who has never lost this opportunity, defying rain and sun, intimidations and later disinterest, to be there. The Mass will be celebrated at seven o’clock and then a plaque with the names of 14 other martyrs of Tulunan will be placed where a little wayside shrine has been erected in the memory of Father Tullio Favali.
“The goal to reach is the journey” it has been said, we seem to understand, (the thought comes to us in our mind while we were travelling on the wide and cemented road between Kidapawan and Tulunan once pebbles, mud and dust) …. by the first missionaries appeared in these places. Today only the pilgrims say the same while they are on their way to the sanctuary of Lampagang a few kilometers from La Speranza. This first belief was undoubtedly in the heart of Tullio, 33 years ago, when on a motorcycle (which, as it is, is now exposed in the new and modern Provincial Museum of Kidapawan, the inaugural opening next April 19th, 2018), he went to that fateful crossroads 125. The second was in his faith which helped him not to stop the engine of the motorbike fearing of not knowing the situation well; he was, after all, a neophyte plunged into an indecipherable world that was in constant conflict, if he wanted, he could very well have pulled back, but he did not. Like many of us, even better than us, he had left Italy with the idea of offering his life for others, regardless of whether they were good or bad. In short, a christian way of life sometimes snubbed if not detested by some. Nevertheless, to be respected. Unfortunately, those who declared themselves his adversaries never tried to respect him.
In any case Km 125 was reached by Tullio as a protagonist. It was a fast race because ‘lightened’ by the renunciation of a comfortable life, a family, a salaried job, but also facilitated by the distances taken towards a society that polluted costumes by means of a bad market economy (we pray for its early extinction). For a few moments, like Tullio at kilometer 125, we imagined ourselves as protagonists between ‘Earth and Heaven’ (to paraphrase the text of Roberto Cavosi on the drama of Tullio staged at San Babila Theatre, Milan, in the now distant year 2000). Somehow we felt we were pushed by the human shabbiness into the ghostly slums of today, and in an other way attracted, instead, by the heights reached by the righteous (saints and martyrs). Certainly not in order to become super men, but, if anything, awkward and fleeting time travelers.
Before leaving we shared exchanges of impressions with the participants; more or less a hundred. Among them parents of victims, old ladies, mostly widows. They asked us to send their greetings to the still living PIME fathers, Luciano Ghezzi, Sandro Bauducci, Michel Carlone, Sebastiano D’Ambra, Giulio Mariani …. and that here we do.
I was twelve when I saw the macabre urban legend walking before my eyes.
I was grade six in Kidapawan, and my section in Notre Dame was having its retreat in Guadalupe Formation Center shortly after Joseph Estrada pardoned Norberto Manero Jr.
I could see him from the screened windows of the large pavilion in which retreat sessions were held, overlooking the road from the gates of Guadalupe to the Bishop’s Palace further inside the compound: the man they called ‘Kumander Bukay,’ ‘The Priest-killer,’ ‘The Cannibal,’ or more sinisterly ‘The Brain-eater,’ walking solemnly from the gates towards the grave of Fr. Tullio Favali.
In the urban imagination of Kidapawan, the story of Manero has passed into the realm of legend and folklore, becoming archetypal of what I call Cotabato Gothic.
‘The man named Manero killed an Italian priest and burned his motorcycle before he ate the priest’s brains.’ That was the story I heard as a child growing up in Kidapawan. I must have heard it before I was eight, because when I was old enough to go to Guadalupe on recollections and our teacher brought the class to the grave of Fr Favali, I knew more about the story than what she told my classmates (I recall trying to look for bits of brain matter on the charred motorcycle when I first saw it).
North Cotabato is mythic like this. The distance or the danger of travel between towns, or perhaps the inherent tendency of Mindanao Settlers to invent reality to make something more dramatic, meant that news and history when told are often stripped of facts and condensed into pure impression, often embellished to capture the horror or wonder, until only that fabulous version is remembered. This was how violence and insanity became normal in the world I grew up in.
And yet behind the macabre and the fantastic there is almost always a grain of truth.
Fr Tullio Favali was murdered by the Manero Brothers on the 11th of April, 1985 in Tulunan. The Manero Brothers, Norberto, Edilberto, and Elpidio, were members of the armed group Ilaga, which ravaged our side of Mindanao from the 60s to the 80s.
By most accounts, the Ilaga started out as a militia in the settlements of what was once the Empire Province of Cotabato, organized by Ilonggo settlers who were tired of having the land they tilled pillaged by neighbouring Moros. From there the group became a paramilitary unit which helped the military in its fight against Muslim and Communist insurgents.
In the troubles of the late 60s, Ilaga was consumed by its narrative of hate and evolved into a cult-like group, with its members being reported wearing strings of human ears (cut from their victims) as talismans. Magical powers were routinely attributed to its leader, Commander Toothpick, and to its other commanders. The group went about earning a notoriety unseen in Mindanao perhaps since the days of J.W. Duncan. On June 1971 they massacred nearly a hundred civilian Muslims, including children and the elderly, in the mosque of Manili in Carmen (read Rogelio Braga’s vivid account of the massacre). When the writ of habeas corpus was suspended on September of that year, the Muslim community in Kidapawan’s Poblacion went on exodus en masse overnight as the Ilaga came in and looted their homes.
The court decision that found the Manero Brothers and their cohorts guilty of the murder of Favali is a sobering read, in both senses of the word. It demystifies the legend that even then had already enshrouded the case (the court decision acknowledges this at some points), but it is still an account of a cold blooded murder done very publicly and in broad daylight.
The Manero brothers and their friends who were in Tulunan on 11 April were high ranking members of the group operating in North Cotabato. They were there to go on a killing spree of pre-identified targets, among whom was another foreign priest, Fr Peter Geremia, whom the group suspected of having links to the NPA (the Catholic church of Kidapawan and of the province, as I’ve written here last time, has a history of actively fighting for social justice). After shooting several people, the group came across Favali, who arrived in the house of Domingo Gomez. They burned the priest’s motorcycle, and when Favali came to react over the burning, he was shot in the head.
While Norberto was the one often called ‘The Priest Killer,’ Favali was actually shot by another Manero, Norberto’s brother Edilberto. It is what Kumander Bukay did after the priest died that lent him the notoriety. ‘Edilberto,’ I quote from the court decision, ‘jumped over the prostrate body three times, kicked it twice, and fired anew. The burst of gunfire virtually shattered the head of Fr. Favali, causing his brain to scatter on the road. As Norberto, Jr., flaunted the brain to the terrified onlookers, his brothers danced and sang “Mutya Ka Baleleng” to the delight of their comrades-in-arms.’
This danse macabre is all that stuck to the province’s imagination, and from there the horror of it grew as it was embellished. The Manero Brothers were essentially reduced to just one person, ‘Manero’ (a name which I observe had since eclipsed ‘Kumander Bukay’ in notoriety), and stories of how this Manero ‘ate the priest’s brains’ or ‘had the priest’s brains as pulutan with Tanduay’ became more widely known than the actual details of the murder.
This is how legends are born in North Cotabato.
By the time I was growing up, the incident had been all but forgotten, but the horror of it lingered, as parents in Kidapawan in the 90s told their children of the story barely remembered of the man who ate a priest’s brains.
On the day I saw Norberto Manero he was walking towards the grave of the man whose murder he was party to. He was visiting the grave for the first time, as an act of reconciliation.
But I did not see it that way, and so do many, still. Reconciliation is far too subtle to be understood in Mindanao, it has always been easier to see demons in people, to be blind to the struggles of others in light of the atrocities they commit. Just as Manero and his fellow Ilaga lost sight of Favali’s humanity in their score-long hatred of Moros and insurgents, so too did the province lose sight in Manero of what might once have been a poor farmer’s son dragged into counter-insurgency by the violent circumstances of his island.
Today even the memory of that horror is slowly fading away. In Kidapawan at least, where Fr. Favali is buried, I get the sense that part of the drive to progress is to discard the sordid memories of a painful past, that for us to be a happy town we must somehow forget that we once saw suffering and misery. We dance the Samba and the Cha Cha, but we forget even the melody of ‘Mutya ka Baleleng.’
Favali, who gave his life to his mission here in Mindanao, deserves better, just as the Maneros, who in the madness of their hatred ended up killing many innocent people, deserve better. The lessons of the past, of the lethal power of blind resentment, of the ease with which truth is distorted, and of the many murders that still remain without justice, they deserve better than just being dismissed as the obscure interests of morbid historians. They can be re-contextualized, perhaps even reevaluated, but they deserve better than to be forgotten.
But then again, that is also how legends die in North Cotabato.
L’altro ieri sera Padre Peter Geremia mi ha mostrato la lettera della AY Foundation con cui lo si informava di avere ricevuto il 30mo SAINT THERESA OF CALCUTTA AWARD (STCA) for social concern and services.
Il premio gli verra’ dato a Makati il prossimo 21 settembre 2017
Siamo contenti per lui e con lui e lo accompagniamo spiritualmente in questo importante riconoscimento del suo lavoro missionario e di promozione umana tra i piu’ poveri.